Razvan Orasanu
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Romania’s immigration record. Did those hordes of Romanians “invade” Britain

British tabloids have recently launched a full-on campaign on the impact of Romanian immigrantion in the UK. Tabloids like The Sun and Daily Mail warned the British population about the “invasion” that was about to happen, with Romanians landing on British airports and then taking up stealing, begging, and illegal selling of steel. News about over-booked flights and supplemented coaches were spun in the media cycle. (see article here )
As the 1st of January 2014 arrived, so did the invading Romanians. The only issue was that when the doors opened, there was no invasion, of the sort suggested in the British press. For example, most of the Romanians that arrived at Luton Airport met Keith Vaz, with the whole of the British media in toe, dispelling popular myths. They proved to be merely returning from their vacation in Romania, and of the 160 places in the first plane to hit the ground at Luton Airport, only 130 places were filled. In fact, in the entire plane Keith Vaz and the journalists could only find two Romanians coming to work for the first time – a dentist and somebody who went to work in a car wash and became an instant media celebrity. It was hardly an invasion. Still, the British press mentioned that in the following period, the Romanian workers may still arrive in their millions[i], but facts and reasonable inference from those facts prove otherwise.
Immigration and basic Maths
Let’s start with a basic math check. “When controls imposed in 2005 are lifted tomorrow, 29 million from the two countries will gain the right to work in Britain”, noisily crowed the Daily Mail, producing 58.000 shares for its sensationalist and very poorly researched article. However, the Romanian National Institute of Statistics has published the definitive results of the latest census of Romanians, who are all in all 20.1 million[ii]. Bulgarians are 7.3 million in total[iii], with the CIA Factbook estimating an even lower 6.9 million. In conclusion, the addition of 20.1 million and 7.3 million leads the tabloid to conclude that 29 million will gain the right to work in Britain. Basic addition must be one of the strong points of a Daily Mail journalist (Arthur Martin and John Stevens in particular, in this case), since the estimate of the combined population of two EU member states is off the mark by a spectacular 1.6 million people.
So, how about any numbers for people actually planning to invade Britain, of those millions that do exist? In a professional poll done for the BBC Newsnight program in April of 2013, the number of Romanians actually considering moving to work in the UK is, wait for it, 1%. At these small numbers, we are literally in the margin of error – and of course considering moving are not all actually moving straight away. Even if we were to take the heroic assumptions that all those who were polled as intended to leave will in fact leave in the next two years, and even if all those leaving went towards the UK (when in fact Germany, France and 7 other countries have also opened their borders) , the number we would be talking about is in the region of 201.000 people of over two years for a population of 63.7 million[iv]. This is compared to 1.4 million Indians, 1.1 million Pakistanis and 1.9 million African/ Caribbean[v].
We must also try to connect the number of Romanians saying they intend to move with the numbers already in Britain, to get a sense of what is realistic – the slope of the immigration could potentially be getting slightly steeper following the permission to work, but the freedom to travel was already introduced from January 1st, 2007, upon the EU accession of Romania and Bulgaria. That year, only 120.000 Romanians left for Britain, which represents a much smaller figure than the 2 million which are living in Italy and Spain, having moved there gradually over 7-8 years. Since then, some have returned. Moreover, the official figures for 2012 showed that 94.000 Romanians were living in the UK[vi]. The fears of the British were motivated by the large number of immigrants that arrived in the UK in 2004, which were much higher than those of Romanians and Bulgarians, as the table of the Office for National Statistics shows[vii], rendering the British fears unjustified this time around, especially given the sharp difference showed by the graph. As a matter of fact, most of the Romanians that arrived in the UK on January 1st were returning to their jobs, as the Romanian Ambassador points out[viii].

Predicting Romanian and Bulgarian immigration and the precedent of EU-8
What is the problem of the two graphs above, stated simply? First, that the immigration numbers from EU 8 countries computed by Britain’s Office of National Statistics compared to those from Romania and Bulgaria are vastly different, however in the public mind the problem is very much the same. Put differently, even if the numbers were only ever sort of similar somewhere around 2003 or 2004 and have since diverged sharply and the public debate is very similar for the two groups, largely helped by sensationalist stories such as the Daily Mail story which prompted this article. Second, compounding the actual problem of having immigrants arrive in overcrowded areas such as London is the very public error by the government in underestimating the number of EU-8 immigrants, in particular the Poles. It would be useful to remember that at the time the UK decided not to have labour market restrictions in place – whereas for Romania and Bulgaria the restrictions were operational to the fullest extent possible until January 1st, 2014.It would also be useful to remember that nine other countries are lifting restrictions, notably France and Germany.
Still, at the core, the difficulty of counting and estimating remains. As an example, the UK government predicted, in 2004, that 13.000 individuals would arrive, but actually this figure was much exceeded[ix]. In fact, the Migration Observatory at the University of Oxford quotes 14% Polish nationals out of the entire pool of foreign nationals. The same source quotes working immigrants numbering just shy of 8 million people. It furthermore helpfully notes that “over the whole time period analysed (1993-2012), the highest growth in the foreign-born population occurred between 2005 and 2006, with the stock of migrants increasing by 900.000 (15%).”[x] Financial Times mentions that in 2012 only 170.186 Romanians left Romania in all, which is the lowest in ten years, while other 176.266 actually returned[xi] (a large part of this fluctuation is given by seasonal working, particularly in Spain or Italy with people moving back and forth). Alarmist and sensationalist articles are, therefore, hardly backed up by evidence.
Current conditions in Romania also count as counterarguments to the fears of the British. Why so? To begin with, unemployment is trending under the EU average, which means that a large part of the population is already occupied. Secondly, there are 1.1[xii] million Romanians having stable jobs in the state sector alone, not to mention the fact that seven out of ten Romanians work in the private sector, according to official statistics.[xiii] There is also a good 35%-38% of the population based in the rural area which is underemployed, but there are few areas where these is a close social network link with the UK – more links have been built over the years with Spain and Italy (understandably so since these are the two closest EU languages to Romanian). Social links tend to be the best predictor of immigration. Migration Watch UK itself has also predicted, after 1st January, that there will not be an immediate flood of Romanian immigrants in the UK, but more of a balanced influx[xiv]. Nigel Farage and his UK Independence Party are the only ones willing to bet on one million immigrants coming to Britain – and their rhetoric is putting pressure on the government to appear tougher[xv].
What is the contribution of immigrants to the European economy?
There are also some other aspects, when speaking about the economic contribution that immigrants and in particular Romanian immigrants make in Europe. One of them is the declaration of Herbert Brücker, of the Institute for Employment Research, who is quoted in The Economist as he underlines the manner in which Romanians also contribute to the welfare system by paying their taxes, sometimes higher than €2,000[xvi]. Professionally speaking, there is some data of the Office for National Statistics relevant to the discussion. In England and Wales, 60% of the foreign nationals are economically active and employed, while the UK nationals score under this percentage on the same chart. As far as training is concerned, almost 40% of the foreign nationals enjoy a degree-type of qualification, as compared to 30% of the UK nationals[xvii]. Germany, that received 400.000 Romanians in 2007 alone, makes the point that 65% of the Romanians work, also having a lower unemployment rate as compared to the other ethnic groups (7.4% for Romanians and Bulgarians are unemployed, compared with an average for the rest of 14.7%)[xviii].
One of the fears of the UK was that Romanians may try to seek welfare benefits, instead of actually working. On this topic, EU Commissioner Laszlo Andor explains that free circulation has actually benefitted the economies of the countries of destinations. Furthermore, issues that may arise from an overload of the education or accommodation system should not be tackled by bans, but by the use of the European Social Fund, that should be employed with the purpose of facilitating social inclusion and prevent poverty. The EU Commissioner also points out to the procedures undertaken by the EU, which has been working hard so as to keep the receiving countries sheltered from types of abusive use of the welfare system, as well as imposing certain measures for the protection of the workers from exploitation[xix].
Territorial distribution of immigration and the pressure on London
The Labout Force Survey, also provided by the Migration Observatory at the University of Oxford, also helpfully points to the distribution in the UK of the foreign-born population. Nearly half of this population is based in the South East and London, with the lowest number based in the North East, in Wales and in Northern Ireland. The pressure on public services and on the price of rents is then, naturally, higher in South East and in London and, of course, UK citizens are more evenly distributed throughout the country.

Criminality was also a fear, also closely linked with the Southeast and London. The myth about immigrants and their connection to crime has also been connected with figures announced by the Metropolitan Police in London. Stories abounded – one example is an article in 2007 in the Daily Telegraph running stories such as “foreigners commit one fifth of crime in London”[xx] – counting Romanians with 1087 crimes (and a spectacular +705% rise) for the period running from January-June 2007. The label stuck so well that years later there is very little actual additional analysis that has been done. Later figures do not bear out the very small sample data which fed the original articles. What is more, additional analysis by the London School of Economics, rigorously done, actually finds evidence to state the contrary – that there is less crime in areas where Poles, Hungarians and other EU -8 immigrants have increased their numbers.[xxi] The least one can state is the contrary – that there is no serious, rigorous, statistically significant analysis that proves the contrary – that immigration did, in fact, increase crime rates, be it in London or anywhere else.

What are we left with? Circumstantial evidence, such as that contained in the photo above. Your correspondent, whilst on a trip to London attending an official conference went out at the central underground station Covent Garden – known the world over as one of the busiest and most representative – only to find a bright yellow statement reading (in Romanian!) “Police officers in plain clothes are operating in this area”. The scrupulously fair Metropolitan Police would not have put up such a statement without clear evidence of crime related to Romanian citizens operating in the area and indication that such a statement in Romanian would help them in their work, somehow. However, this does not help us any further – immigration to Britain from Romania is limited, thus far, to very low, manageable numbers. Those immigrants that do arrive are in no way any more criminal as a sample of the UK population at large. Problems arise typically in large urban areas where immigrants are also disproportionately concentrated – but even there the evidence points against the negative impacts of immigrants. The Daily Mail and others will not reconsider –but perhaps fair minded British people can do so, in time. Finally, British humor does help, a bit – and Twitter was instrumental in poking fun at the hysteria of Romanian and Bulgarian immigrants. My favorite Twitter statement was from a man who stated: “All those Bulgarian and Romanians immigrants bought off all our invisibility cloaks”.
Tabloidele britanice au lansat o campanie sistematica legata de imigrantii romani in Marea Britanie. Tabloide cum ar fi The Sun sau Daily Mail au avertizat britanicii despre “invazia” iminenta, despre pericolul romanilor de a se apuca de furat, cersit si vandut fier vechi in Regatul Unit. Vestile despre avioane pline ochi si autobuze suplimentare care s-ar indrepta spre Londra au suplimentat frica si au fost vehiculate constant in ciclul mediatic, zi de zi.
Atunci cand 1 Ianuarie 2014 a venit, au aparut si romanii invadatori. Singura problema a fost ca atunci cand granitle s-au deschis, nu a fost nicio invazie, in stilul sugerat de presa britanica. De exemplu, cei mai multi dintre romanii care au ajung la Luton Airport s-au intalnit cu Keith Vaz (care a insistat sa aduca toata presa britanica cu el) si povestile lor au contrastat puternic cu miturile care au fost raspandite despre ei. Marea majoritate erau de fapt romani care se intorceau din vacanta de Craciun – si din cele 160 de locuri din avion, 130 de locuri erau doar pline. De fapt, din toti pasagerii avionului respectiv, pe care au tabarat jurnalistii britanici, s-au gasit doar doi oameni care au venit sa lucreze pentru prima data – un dentist si un spalator auto care a devenit o celebritate nationala in foarte scurt timp. Nu prea a semnat a invazie. Totusi, presa britanica a continuat – mentionand posibilitatea ca milioane de romani si bulgari sa vina sa munceasca, desi fapte concrete si o interpretare rezonabila a faptelor pe care le stim ar putea sa ne conduca la alte concluzii.
Putem incepe cu o verificare sumara a cifrelor vehiculate. “Cand elementele de securitate pe piata muncii impuse in 2005 vor fi ridicate, 29 de milioane de oameni din cele doua tari vor dobandi dreptul de munca in Marea Britanie” a strigat ziarul Daily Mail, producand nu mai putin de 58.000 de “share” pe facebook pentru articolul lor sensationalist. Totusi, Institutul National de Statistica a dat rezultatele recensamantului din 2011, anuntand ca sunt in total 20,1 milioane de romani. Bulgarii sunt 7,3 miioane in total (CIA Factbook estimeaza mai putin, cam 6,9 milioane). Concluzionand, daca aduni 20,1 milioane cu 7,3 milioane ziarul concluzioneaza ca 29 de milioane castiga dreptul de munca. Capacitatea de a aduna doua sume trebuie sa fie una din atuurile jurnalistilor, de vreme ce estimarea numarului de oameni din cele doua tari are o eroare spectaculoasa de cel putin 1,6 milioane de oameni.
Dar cati oameni din cei existenti chiar au in vedere sa invadeze Marea Britanie, din aceste milioane de oameni care exista? Intr-un sondaj profesionist realizat de reputatul program BBC Newsnight in Aprilie 2013, numarul romanilor sondati care iau in considerare sa lucreze in Marea Britanie este de 1%. La aceste numere mici, suntem chiar in marja de eroare si foarte aproape de zero – oricum cei care se gandesc sa se mute nu o pot face imediat, chiar daca ar vrea. Chiar daca luam scenariul putin probabil in care toti romanii care vor sa plece ar si reusi sa plece in urmatorii doi ani si am sustine (iarasi putin probabil) ca toti cei care ar pleca astfel s-ar indrepta spre Marea Britanie (desi Germania si Franta si 7 alte state si-au deschis granitele pentru romani), tot vorbim de 1% din 20,1 milioane, adica 201.000 de romani intr-un timp de doi ani, in conditiile in care vorbim de o populatie totala de 63,7 milioane. Putem compara aceasta cifra cu 1,4 milioane indieni, 1,1 milioane pakistanezi si 1,9 oameni din Africa si Caraibe.
Este, de asemenea, necesar sa conexam numarul oamenilor care spun ca intentioneaza sa se mute in Marea Britanie cu numarul celor care deja sunt acolo – pentru a avea un indicator mai realist – este posibil ca aceasta curba descrisa de graficul de mai sus sa creasca putin mai rapid, insa libertatea de circulatie a fost pusa in opera inca din 1 ianuarie 2007, cand Romania si Bulgaria au aderat la Uniunea Europeana. Chiar in acel an, doar 120.000 de romani s-au indreptate spre Marea Britanie, comparativ cu un numar combinat de aproape doua milioane care au mers spre Spania si Italia. Chiar si pentru aceste doua state, mutarea acestei populatii s-a facut in 7-8 ani – nu putem sti exact cati oameni s-au mutat annual pentru ca facem recensamant in Europa doar o data la 10 ani. Intre timp, unii s-au si intors. Cifre aratau, de asemeneea, doar 94.000 de romani locuind oficial in Marea Britanie. Teama britanicilor e motivata de altceva – in special de numarul mare de imigranti care au ajuns in 2004, cu mult inaintea romanilor si a bulgarilor, facand aceasta frica nejustificata acum, mai ales avand in vedere diferentele intre cele doua populatii clar aratate de graficul prezentat. Este un fapt demonstrat, deja, ca marea majoritate a romanilor care au ajuns in Marea Britanie pe 1 Ianuarie 2014 nu faceau decat sa se intoarca la niste joburi pe care deja le aveau, dupa cum a mentionat si Ambasadorul Romaniei in Marea Britanie.
Care e problema graficului de mai sus, spusa foarte simplu si direct? Prima este ca numerele absolute de imigranti din tarile EU -8 comparate de Oficiul Britanic de Statistica cu cifrele din Romania si Bulgaria arata diferente majore, desi in mintea publicului problema imigratiei este uniforma si la fel de mare peste tot. Ca sa spunem acelasi lucru altfel, singurii ani in care cifrele erau similare au fost anii 2003-2004 si cifrele s-au indepartat foarte cert intre timp, desi articole senzationaliste fac ca dezbaterea sa se refere in acelasi fel la ambele segmente de populatie. A doua problema este ca, in plus fata de problema imigratiei in sine, cei mai multi dintre cei care emigreaza ajung in zone precum zona conurbatiei londoneza, iar aceata imigratie a fost subestimata foarte serios in trecut de guvernul britanic. In special venirea unui val de polonezi in Londra nu a fost prevazuta. Ar fi util sa ne amintim ca atunci cand au venit polonezii, UK a decis sa nu impuna tarilor EU-8 restrictii de munca – in timp ce pentru Romania aceste restrictii au operat inca 7 ani dupa aderare. Ar fi de asemenea util sa spunem ca toti cei care vor sa isi mute locul de munca din Romania au o piata de 9 tari in care pot merge – iar Franta si Germania sunt alternative interesante.
Totusi, la baza ramane dificultatea de a numara si de a estima. Spre exemplu, guvernul britanic a estimate un numar de 13.000 de polonezi care ar veni in Marea Britanie, dar acest numar a fost excedat de foarte multe ori. De fapt, Observatorul Migratiei de la Universitatea din Oxford spune ca ar fi 14% polonezi din tot bazinul de imigranti existent actualmente in Marea Britanie. Mentioneaza,de asemenea, ca pe intreaga durata a unei analize pe care a facut-o in fiecare an in perioada 1993-2011, cea mai mare crestere de populatie a avut loc in 2005 si 2006, cand stocul de imigranti a crescut cu 900.000 (adica 15%). Financial Times mentioneaza ca in 2012 doar 170.186 romani au plecat din Romania, in total, in timp ce alti 176.266 s-au reintors (o mare parte din aceasta fluctuatie putand fi explicata prin munca sezoniera din Italia si Spania si de miscarea populatiei intre Romania si cele doua locatii). Deci, articolele alarmiste nu au intotdeaua in spate cifre serioase.
Conditiile din Romania ar putea fi inca un contra-argument pentru teama britanicilor. De ce? Pentru inceput, somajul are un trend sub media europeana, ceea ce inseamna ca o buna parte din populatie este ocupata deja (si deci nu are un risc pronuntat de emigrare). In al doilea rand, sunt 1,1 romani care au o slubja stabila, intrucat lucreaza deja pentru stuat, pentru a nu mai mentiona si faptul ca restul (7 din 10 in totalul fortei de munca) lucreaza in domeniul privat, conform statisticilor existente. De asemenea, pentru aproximativ 38-40% din populatie din zona rurala este disponibila, dar exista zone putine unde relatiile de legatura existenta cu zonele de imigranti din statele europene – deci putem presupune ca nu va fi o “invazie” sau o “inundatie”, ci mai mult, un influx care poate fi gestionat. De fapt, Nigel Farage, liderul UK Independence Party este singurul care pare dispus sa parieze ca mai mult de un milion de imigranti vor ajunge in Marea Britanie – si retorica lui pune presiune pe guvernul conservator pentru a se arata neinduplecat si restrictiv in aceasta problema.
Mai exista si alte aspecte, cand vorbim de contributia economica a imigrantilor si indeosebi a imigrantilor romani la prosperitatea Europei. Herbert Brucker, de la Institutul pentru Cercetarea Pietei Muncii este citat de The Economist subliniind ca romanii care muncesc contribuie cu 2.000 de euro per persoana la sistemele europene de asigurari sociale, prin taxare. Vorbind riguros, exista date de la Institutul National de Statistica care ar putea fi relevante pentru discutia in cauza. In Anglia si Wales, 60% dintre cei care muncesc si au o alta nationalitate decat cea britanica sunt angajati, un procentaj mai mare decat britanicii. Din punct de vedere al pregatirii intelectuale, aproape 40% dintre imigranti au diploma de facultate, comparativ cu 30% pentru populatia britanica. Germania, care a primit 400.000 de imigranti romani doar in 2007, precizeaza ca 65% dintre romanii din Germania muncesc, avand si o rata a somajului mai mica fata de restul imigrantilor ( 7.4% comparativ cu 14.7% pentru restul imigrantilor).
In plus, una dintre fricile invocate adeasea ar fi fost tentativa romanilor si bulgarilor de a cere diverse tipuri de ajutoare sociale. Pe aceasta tema, Comisarul UE Laszlo Andor a explicat ca libera circulatie a creat de fapt, beneficii nete pentru tarile de destinatie. De asemenea, supra-aglomerarile in zona serviciilor publice in educatie sau sanatate pot fi compensate de Fondul Social European, create pentru a ajuta incluziunea sociala si a scadea saracia. Comisarul European a spus ca anumite proceduri ar trebui lansate de EU, care se straduie sa protejeze tarile care primesc imigranti de folosirea abuziva a sistemului de ajutoare sociala, in paralel cu impunerea unor masuri pentru a proteja muncitorii in tara exploatarii de catre angajatori.
Tot un studiu facut de Observatorul Migratiei de la Universitatea Oxford arata distributia imigrantilor in Regatul Unit (aratand unde e de fapt problema). Aproape jumatate dintre cei care vin se duc in Sud-Est si in Londra, in timp ce catre zone precum Irlanda de Nord sau Wales nu se indreapta aproape nimeni. Evident, presiunea asupra serviciilor publice si asupra chiriilor, de pilda, este mult mai mare in Londra si in zona sud-est. De asemenea, este limpede ca cetatenii britanici sunt mult mai egal distribuiti pe suprafata tarii, comparativ cu imigrantii.
O alta frica a fost rata de infractionalitate, de asemenea in corelatie foarte mare cu zona de Sud-Est si cu zona Londrei. Mitul imigrantului care e legat de rate in crestere ale infractionalitatii a pornit de la niste cifre anuntate de Politia Metropolitana din Londra in 2007, primul an dupa aderare. De pilda, un articol Daily Telegraph din 2007 are titlul “Strainii comit a cincea parte din toate infractiunile comise la Londra” – aratand romanii pe un loc 4 la infractiuni, cu 1087 infractiuni comise (+705% crestere fata de perioada anterioara, adica anul 2006), pentru perioada Ianuarie –Iunie 2007. Eticheta a prins atat de bine, incat intre timp s-a facut foarte putina analiza a datelor, in mod serios. Cifrele care au urmat anuntarii acestor cifre nu au confirmat trendul. Ba mai mult, un stidiu de data recenta de la London School of Economics arata ca exista mai putina infractionalitate in zonele in locuiesc polonezi, maghiari sau alte nationalitati din EU-8. Ce putem afirma este contrariul – nu exista pana in prezent nicio analiza a datelor pe mai multi ani care sa poata confirma o corelatie sau o legatura de tip cauza-efect intre cresterea ratei imigrantilor si cresterea infractionalitatii. nici in Londra si nicaieri altundeva in Marea Britanie.
Ce ar mai ramane, deci? Dovezi circumstantiale, cum este cea culeasa din fotografia de mai sus. Corespondentul dvs, in timpul undei conferinte in Londra a iesit dintr-o statie central de metrou, Covent Garden – stiuta in lumea intreaga – si a gasit un semn cu galben aprins care avea inscris urmatoarea fraza, in romeste “Polististi in civil opereaza in aceasta zona”. Politia Metropolitana, obisnuita cu un tratament corect aplicat imigrantilor nu ar fi pus un astfel de afis daca nu aveau dovezi concrete si coerente ca exista in zona imigranti romani. Dar, astfel de exemple nu pot demonstra un trend global – de fapt, orice esantion luat pana acum cu imigranti nu are o rata de infractionalitate demonstrata fundamental diferita de cea existenta deja in Marea Britanie. Probleemele mari care apar sunt legate de zone urbane unde o concentratie de nationalitate straina produce un impact disproportionat. Cliseele despre imigranti vor ramane – dar poate britanicii vor putea sa isi schimbe parerile, in timp. De asemenea, umorul britanic ne ajuta, putin – cei care au puse mesaje pe Twitter au ajutat sa dezamorseze isteria creata de mass-media in legatura cu imigranti romani. Mesajul meu favorit pe Twitter, dintre cele care au fost postate: “Toti romanii si bulgarii astia au facut ce au facut si ne-au cumparat toate pelerinele de invizibilitate”
[i] http://www.hotnews.ro/stiri-esential-16325319-primul-avion-care-decolat-din-romania-dupa-eliminarea-restrictiilor-piata-muncii-intampinat-aeroportul-luton-doi-parlamentari-britanici-mass-media-britanica.htm
[iii] http://www.nsi.bg/census2011/PDOCS2/Census2011final_en.pdf
[iv] http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/pop-estimate/population-estimates-for-uk–england-and-wales–scotland-and-northern-ireland/mid-2011-and-mid-2012/index.html
[v] According to the Office of National Statistics, 2011 Census: Ethnic group, local authorities in the United Kingdom.
[vi] http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-21523319
[vii] http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-25549712
[viii] http://www.realitatea.net/vedeta-top-gear-gluma-despre-hoardele-de-romani-care-au-invadat-marea-britanie_1350685.html#ixzz2pN1N6Ipb
[ix] http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-25560462
[x] See file attached to this article
[xi] http://www.mediafax.ro/externe/financial-times-romanii-nu-se-grabesc-sa-emigreze-in-marea-britanie-rasista-11890084
[xii] Rich EU countries fret about social-benefits tourism after the lifting of restrictions on the free movement of workers from Romania and Bulgaria on January 1st,http://www.economist.com/printedition/2014-01-04
[xiii] http://economie.hotnews.ro/stiri-finante_banci-13452083-analiza-hotnews.htm
[xiv] http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-25566047
[xv] http://www.mediafax.ro/externe/financial-times-romanii-nu-se-grabesc-sa-emigreze-in-marea-britanie-rasista-11890084
[xvi] http://www.economist.com/printedition/2014-01-04
[xvii] http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/census/2011-census/detailed-characteristics-for-regions-in-england-and-for-wales/sty-economic-activity.html
[xviii] http://www.economist.com/printedition/2014-01-04
[xix] http://www.hotnews.ro/stiri-esential-16323686-comisarul-european-pentru-munca-putin-probabil-inregistreze-aflux-romani-bulgari-dupa-ridicarea-restrictiilor-recunoastem-pot-probleme-nivel-local.htm
[xx] http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1563890/Foreigners-commit-fifth-of-crime-in-London.html
[xxi] http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2013/apr/28/immigration-impact-crime

07 mart.2014


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